There are a couple of things that you can
do to prevent or minimize bruising after an injury. First, try a cold
compress. Put ice in a plastic bag, wrap the bag in a towel (applying
the ice directly to the skin can cause frostbite), and place it on the
injured area. Commercial ice packs are also available, but a bag of frozen
peas makes an excellent substitute. It molds to the shape of the injured
area and can then be re-frozen and used again (but don't eat them!!).
The cold reduces the blood flow to the area and therefore limits bleeding
into the skin and reduces the size of the bruise. The cold also decreases
the inflammation in the area of the injury and limits swelling in this
way as well. If possible, elevate the area above the level of the heart.
The lower an extremity is below the heart, the more blood will flow to
the area and increase the bleeding and swelling.
Finally, pressure applied to the area (by
hand, not with tourniquets) can reduce bleeding .
People who take medicines that reduce clotting
("blood thinners") or have clotting abnormalities should seek
the advice of a physician or other health care provider immediately, as
should the elderly or those who have experienced significantly severe
What if the bruise doesn't
get better or the area stays swollen?
On occasion, instead of going away, the area
of a bruise will become firm and may actually start increasing in size.
It may also continue to be painful. There are two major causes for this.
First, if a large collection of blood is formed under the skin or in the
muscle, instead of trying to clean up the area, the body may wall the
blood off causing what is called a hematoma. A hematoma is nothing more
than a small pool of blood that is walled off. This may need to be drained
by your health care practitioner.