The Evolution of Animal Use in Research 1822
British anticruelty act introduced by Richard Martin. He later founded the RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)
1859
Charles Darwin publishes the theory of evolution
1866
Henry Bergh founds ASPCA in U.S.
1876
British Cruelty to Animals Act regulates animal experimentation
1885
Louis Pasteur develops rabies vaccine
1891
Diphtheria antitoxin produced

Tetanus antitoxin found
1951
Christine Stevens founds Animal Welfare Institute in U.S.
1952
Jonas Salk develops killed-virus polio vaccine
1954
Humane Society of the U.S. founded
1953
Albert Sabin develops live, attenuated polio vaccine
1959
William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch state three Rs of animal experimentation
1966
Animal Welfare Act (AWA) passed in the U.S.
1969
Dorothy Hegarty founds Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments in U.K.
1970
Amendments to AWA cover warm-blooded animals and require pain relief
1975
Peter Singer publishes animal-liberation philosophy
1981
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing founded in U.S.
1985
Amendments to AWA result from Silver Spring, Md., and Pennsylvania primate exposÚs
1992
European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods founded
1993
First World Congress on Alternatives held in the U.S.
1996
Second World Congress on Alternatives held in the Netherlands