Appeal to Fear
Also Known as: Scare Tactics, Appeal to Force, Ad Baculum
An Appeal to Force happens when someone resorts to force (or the threat of force) to try and push others to accept a conclusion. This fallacy is often used by politicians, and can be summarized as "might makes right." The threat doesn't have to come directly from the person arguing. The audience is told that unpleasant consequences will follow if they do not agree with the author.
The Appeal to Fear is a fallacy with the following pattern:
Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear).
Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner).
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because creating fear in people does not constitute evidence for a claim.
It is important to distinguish between a rational reason to believe (RRB)
(evidence) and a prudential reason to believe (PRB) (motivation). A RRB is
evidence that objectively and logically supports the claim. A PRB is a reason to
accept the belief because of some external factor (such as fear, a threat, or a
benefit or harm that may stem from the belief) that is relevant to what a person
values but is not relevant to the truth or falsity of the claim. For example, it
might be prudent to not fail the son of your department chairperson because you
fear he will make life tough for you. However, this does not provide evidence
for the claim that the son deserves to pass the class.
You had better agree that the new company policy is the best bet if you
expect to keep your job.
NAFTA is wrong, and if you don't vote against NAFTA then we will vote you out of office.
If you don't stop believing in animal rights, I'll kill three fuzzy animals tonight.
... Thus there is ample proof of the truth of the Bible. All those who refuse to accept that truth will burn in Hell.
... In any case, I know your phone number and I know where you live. Have I mentioned I am licensed to carry concealed weapons?
You know, Professor Smith, I really need to get an A in this class. I'd like to stop by during your office hours later to discuss my grade. I'll be in your building anyways, visiting my father. He's your dean, by the way. I'll see you later.
I don't think a Red Ryder BB rifle would make a good present for you. They are very dangerous and you'll put your eye out. Now, don't you agree that you should think of another gift idea?
You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors of hell.
You shouldn't say such things against multiculturalism! If the chair heard what you were saying, you would never receive tenure. So, you had just better learn to accept that it is simply wrong to speak out against it.
Identify the threat and the proposition and argue that the threat is unrelated to the truth or falsity of the proposition.